E2MA members, particularly those
with significant numbers of full time and part time personnel, have expressed
great concerns about the rising cost of workers compensation insurance and
health insurance for their employees.
The E2MA, in its ongoing commitment
to its members and to "raise the level of service excellence on the showfloor,”
formed an Ad Hoc Committee to investigate the causes of these rising costs, and
to develop a recommendation on how they might be better controlled.
The Safety Committee determined
that the best practice to recommend to our members was a proactive effort to
train its workforce on safety measures that could significantly reduce the
numbers and severity of incidents that occur on the showfloor during move-in
and move-out. The
following Best Practices Recommendation on Safety is offered as a suggestion to
our members on how you best manage and control your workers compensation claims
exposure – and hopefully, as a by-product, manage and control your workers
The EACA empanelled an Ad Hoc
Committee to further study this issue and to make recommendations to the
The EACA Safety Committee
Mike Metzger Zenith
John Yohe Nth
Tom Cassell Convention
Ken Broadbent Sho
Steve Schwartz Washington
Geri Shaffer Aesculap
Ron Gabbert Employco
Jim Wurm EACA
RecommendationsA. Instill Safety First Attitude with a Written Safety Policy
While the environment that fosters the greatest
exposure to accidents is on the show floor, the capacity to control these risks
must begin in the offices of top management. A safety first attitude must come from the
top down in order to be effective, and is best communicated by a written safety
Your written safety policy should include some
or all of the following components:
1. A general statement of commitment to safety by top management.
2. General safety rules for all employees.
3. An I&D safety checklist.
4. Accountability/responsibility programs for your City Managers and leadmen.
5. Information on how your I&D City Managers and leadmen should conduct pre-project safety meetings.
6. A requirement for the reporting of all incidents and accidents, no matter how minor.
7. A list of recommended treatment facilities for each city you work in.
8. A commitment to investigate all incidents and accidents and to initiate corrective measures.
9. A commitment to conduct safety orientations for all new employees.
10. A commitment to schedule routine safety meetings to reinforce safety in the minds of all employees.
Safety Commitment Statement
A written safety policy is the first best step toward controlling costs associated with work performed on the showfloor. In addition to the fact that most insurers require their customers to have a written safety policy to obtain the best possible rates, this document will clearly spell out your expectations around safety and will communicate those expectations to your employees.
The first section of your written policy statement should communicate the company's philosophy about, and commitment to, safety and and include:
1. A general statement of commitment that your company has for creating and maintaining a safe work environment.
<Company> is dedicated to providing a workplace that is free from safety and health hazards. Our desire is to eliminate injuries from our workplace, and our goal is zero (0) injuries. All members of management and supervision are responsible for implementing the company's safety policy. And, all company employees are required to read and sign the company safety rules and guidelines.
2. A statement about your insurance carrier, and your company's policy on handling injuries.
We have hired one of the finest insurance carriers in the country based upon their performance in working with an injured person. <Carrier> promises, upon receipt of an incident/accident report which is filed with their office, they will contact the injured party within 24 hours to confirm they have received proper treatment and care and to assist with any additional care or needs that may be required.
<Company> will stay in constant contact with the injured person to them of proper care and treatment.
following safety rules are general in nature and are suggested to assist all
employees to carry out their responsibilities. All employees should be required to read and
sign these general safety rules.
If an employee has any questions about safety or any concerns about
safety at any point while performing their work, they should be encouraged to
immediately contact their supervisor.
1. Practical jokes and horseplay have no place on the job. Any employee participating in such activities shall be subject to disciplinary action.
2. All hazards warning signs and tags will be obeyed.
3. Drinking of alcoholic beverages or use of drugs on the job or during working hours is prohibited. Any employee reporting to work under the influence of alcoholic beverages, drugs, or consuming alcoholic beverages during working hours or during the lunch break will be subject to disciplinary action.
4. Jewelry such as rings, identification bracelets, long chains, or earrings, etc. should be removed when work involves climbing, material handling or operating mechanical equipment.
5. Appropriate clothing suitable to the type of work being performed should always be worn. Loose clothing should not be worn near machinery or equipment with moving parts.
6. Only personnel properly authorized and trained are allowed to operate forklift trucks or other company owned/leased equipment or vehicles.
7. Personal protective equipment and/or clothing will be worn as required by rules specified for each department; i.e. hard hats, safety glasses, gloves, safety shoes, etc.
8. All incidents/accidents must be reported as soon as possible to the injured person's immediate supervisor. This rule must be followed no matter how minor the incident may be.
9. Keep work areas clean and orderly. Correct any unsafe conditions, if qualified, or report them to your supervisor.
10. Use proper lifting techniques. If you need help, ask for it.
company safety policy should clearly state that it is the responsibility of the
manager to delegate authority to field supervisors and leadmen. The manager must discuss with
their field managers the dangers of working in an exhibit hall such as:
ladder first to make sure it is in good condition
and lock the spreaders in position
use the front of the ladder
stand on top of ladder, or top rung
not straddle top of ladder
face treads of ladder
- Use both hands while climbing - use the three point contact principle
partner hand tools or parts to person on ladder
work up or down the back side of the ladder
not leave tools on the ladder
working on ladders 10’ or higher have safety support person hold the ladder
injuries on show floor come from improperly moving/lifting heavy objects
use your back. Lift with
enough help to properly distribute the load
in doubt, have a fork lift perform function
all visqueen seams solid
holes in visqueen (holes and open seams can trip you)
the proper tool for the job
protective equipment (safety glasses, gloves, hearing protection) provided
before using that the tool is in good working condition
or repair defective tools
Trash / Removal
in order and in one direction
Compressed Gas Cylinders
caution when handling, moving or locating gas cylinders
away from busy aisles where they could get knocked over
appropriate equipment when moving or handling cylinders
ride on forks of a lift truck
not ride on lift truck. This
machine is designed for one operator.
work platform is required at all times while doing high work.
walking under forks (hydraulic lines can break!)
to the side and away from forklift (driver might not see you if directly
stand too close. Rear wheels of forklift may run over feet while turning.
Economy E-Z Lifts
raise platform while man is on lift
platform safety chain
move lift while worker is on platform
one person on operating seat
on scooter must be seated at all times on rear seat
more than two people on scooter
not stand directly in front or rear of scooter (operator might not have machine
in right gear
powered scooters must be turned off when not in motion.
outer edge with tape
Emergency Response Checklist
the phone number for convention center first aid
the location of the nearest fire extinguisher
the location of the nearest company-approved treatment facility
A key factor in the increased
hazard to casual labor on the show floor is that they are "outsiders.” Rather than being part of the
team, they may come to the booth functioning as an individual. As such, their chances of injury
are much greater.
Insist on pre-project safety
meetings to review safety practices with your "regulars” and to pull the
"outsiders” in to make them feel a part of the team focus on safety.
This meeting also gives the
supervisor or leadman time to see that members of the crew are fit and prepared
for work. Three minutes at the
start of the work day may save you hours or days when dealing with injuries or
A pre-project safety meeting can
include some or all of the following:
the project prints and instructions and anticipate any possible safety issues
when installing or dismantling an exhibit.
a plan to safely install or dismantle a project or ask for assistance from the General Foreman.
a safety huddle with the crew:
out safety issues
for feedback from crew – any suggestions?
everyone if they are OK today.
Anyone hurting from day before?
individual abilities before assigning tasks
all resources for job
– skills and resources lead to safe productivity!!
crew that display properties can shift inside crates during handling
periods. Use caution
when opening crates and containers.
your work area clear of loose items and make sure visqueen is taped down
properly and repaired when tears occur to avoid tripping and falling accidents
sure all tools are in good condition and are used properly
there are heavy materials – Remember you are in charge!! Lift safely, get help
if necessary, use proper tools
mindful of your sequence for installation or dismantle. Make sure the sequence for
install or dismantle is done in an order that creates the safest
environment eg. Upper deck panels remain until
attention to other personnel (unions) in job and make sure they are working in
a safe manner.
the location of the nearest fire extinguisher
the phone number of the convention center first aid
the event of any injury remind crew that company safety policy requires taking
pictures and completing an accident report – even if the individual is employed
by another contractor.
Also review with crew the location of the company approved treatment
in almost every organization, accidents do occur. In order for a supervisor or manager to understand the
sequence of events that can lead to an accident, it is essential he/she to
understand what elements need to be prevented or controlled.
An accident is an undesired event that results in physical
harm to a person, or damage to a property.
When an accident occurs, it is seldom a single cause,
but rather a combination of factors or causes which come together under just
the right circumstances to bring about the undesired event, or incident.
an accident occurs, the primary objective – in addition to a detail report on
what occurred - should be to prevent it from reoccurring. By achieving this exhibit services
contractor, and the on-site supervisors, maintain the efficiency of their
accident investigation should begin with:
a. Who is involved?
b. What occurred?
c. What were the immediate causes of the accident?
d. Why were these causes present?
e. What steps are to be taken to remove these causes?
2. Who Should Perform Investigations?
investigations should be performed by the immediate supervisor of the
employee(s) who were involved in the accident.
cases of serious injury (broken bones, amputations, injuries requiring
hospitalization, or death), the investigation should be performed by the
immediate supervisor and his superior.
should be remembered that the investigation is a fact finding mission, and not
a fault blaming exercise.
3. Personal Data
who was involved, including the person that was injured, and any other
employees present. If not directly
involved they could prove to be valuable witnesses.
of non-employees involved in the accident, and any witnesses to the accident
should be included.
last two items are especially necessary in the case of vehicle accidents.
4. Accident Description and Interview
a. Conduct an interview with all individuals as soon as possible after the accident.
b. Techniques to remember while conducting interviews:
the person at ease. A simple, sincere explanation of
the real values that can come from the information may be shared. Assure the individual that no one
is "out to get” him or her.
on the spot. Experience shows this
contributes most significantly to the accuracy and the detail of the accident
the interview in private. Everyone need not be sent away –
just make a courteous explanation that all parties will have an effort to
relate how he/she saw what happened. If conflicts are discovered in the information
given, then the supervisor should re-interview each individual separately to
achieve the most accurate results. Try to keep everyone concerned with the accident
from discussing the event with each other so they don’t rehearse or confuse the
the interview as little as possible,
and never make judgmental remarks like, "that was sure the wrong thing to do.”
v. Ask necessary questions at the right time - "what happened", "who was involved", etc.
the story once you have heard it. This
technique has three values:
will assure your proper understanding
will give the individual a chance to hear what he said, so that he can correct
anything that wasn’t exactly correct
will assist you to develop more information than has been conveyed in words by
each interview on a positive note. Express your appreciation for all
accident details provided, and in particular any ideas that come from the
interview that could prevent or control future events of this type.
critical information quickly –
names, dates, locations, times, numbers, dimensions, outline of details, etc. A complete report can then be written
promptly after the interview.
Attempting to write a complete word-for-word account can be very
disruptive and can result in a failure to get many important details.
and photos help. Since conditions change
quickly following accidents, a
photograph of the scene – taken as soon as possible after the event – can many
times be a valuable reference.
Also, accurate measurements of the various aspects of the area,
conditions of equipment, or materials involved.
x. Keep the Pipeline Open. Encourage people to contribute additional facts they might recall later.
5. Accident Analysis
the interview, a determination of the immediate causes of the accident can be
made. This involves determining
the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions that occurred.
a. Unsafe Acts. Those
acts which were committed by the injured individual that directly led to the
Failure to use
equipment in motion
Failure to use
proper tools or equipment
machinery/equipment at unsafe speed
Failure to use
personal protective devices
equipment without authority/knowledge
Unsafe loading or
Unsafe acts of
Conditions. The conditions of the machinery, tools,
materials, or building that caused the accident.
ramps, stairways, or platforms
Fire or explosion
you have determined any unsafe acts or unsafe conditions, you must determine
why they were present.
Determining why unsafe acts or conditions were present is probably the
most difficult part of the investigation. But, you must remember to continually ask why the
employee acted in such a way, or why the machinery and tools were in such a
condition as to cause the accident.
Unless these why questions are answered, the accident will probably
Lack of proper
enforcement of work standards
preventive maintenance program
Unsafe design or
environmental control program
Action. Once you have determined the causes of the accident,
and why these causes were present, then you can determine the corrective action
correct the problems may involve further employee training, changes in job
procedures or re-designing equipment. A simple "telling the employee not to commit the
unsafe act again” is not sufficient.
a thorough review of the job procedure should be conducted with the
worker. Be sure he/she
understands and agrees with the proper job procedure.
Accident records, if used
properly, can be a valuable tool in improving the effectiveness of your worker
safety program. Also, maintaining
an accurate accident log is required by the Occupational Safety and Health Act.
When an employee injury occurs,
there are two reporting requirements – one for workers’compensation insurance
and one for OSHA.
Also there are two concerns
about any accident:
under workers compensation guidelines.
of compensability, a determination needs to be made by the employer on whether
or not the injury should be recorded on the OHSA 300 Log.
OSHA requires that each employer
who is subject to the recordkeeping requirements of the Occupational Safety and
Health Act of 1970 must maintain for each establishment a log of all recordable
occupational injuries and illnesses. This form (OSHA 300) is best used for that purpose.
Enter each recordable case on
the log within seven (7) calendar days after learning of its occurrence. If the log is prepared elsewhere,
a copy updated to within 45 calendar days must be present at all times in the
Both the logs and the summaries
must be maintained and retained for five (5) years following the end of the
calendar year to which they relate.
Logs must be available (normally at the establishment) for inspection
and copying by representatives of the Department of Labor, or the Department of
Health. Access to the log is also
provided to employees, former employees and their representatives.
At the conclusion of each
calendar year, all applicable information on the OSHA 300 Log must be
transferred onto the OSHA Form 300A - Summary of the work-related injuries and
No later than February 1 of the
following year, the OSHA Form 300A must be posted, and remain posted until
April 30 of that year. Again, both
the OSHA Log 300 and OSHA Summary Form 300A must be maintained on file for five
a. An injury of illness is considered work-related
if it occurs in the normal course of employment and/or work-related activities.
b. All work-related fatalities are recordable.
c. All diagnosed work-related illnesses are
d. All work-related injuries requiring medical treatment
or involving loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, or transfer
to another job are recordable.
injuries requiring only First Aid treatment are not required to be recorded.
H. Approved List of
It is recommended that each E2MA member develop a list of approved treatment facilities for injured employees that are both convenient to the convention center in your city and with whom you have established a solid working relationship.
I. Safety Training
and maintaining a safe work environment will require many if not all of the
recommendations made in this document. Of those none may be more important than the
consistent reinforcement of the principles contained herein through an
effective training program.
number of our members have the ability to produce and deliver their own
programs on safety, but for those that don’t the E2MA plans to organize and
produce safety training programs in each of the E2MA Chapters at least once per
This Best Practices Recommendations on Safety would not be
possible if not for the significant contributions of all on the EACA Ad Hoc
Committee on Safety.
In addition the EACA owes a debt of thanks to the following member
companies, Convention All Services, Employco Services, Nth Degree, and
The preceding Best Practices Recommendations on Safety are
offered to the members of the EACA as suggestions for improving your ability to
manage and control your workers compensation costs.
Utilization of the Best Practices recommendation is
optional, and is not a requirement for membership in the EACA.